Online PhD Programs in Mental Health Counseling

Most people know the terms counselor, therapist, and psychologist. But many want to know: what are the differences between these professions? 

Counselors, also known as mental health therapists, are trained to work with patients and have master’s or doctoral degrees in psychology, marriage and family therapy, and counseling. 

Psychologists, on the other hand, often require a doctoral degree in psychology for clinical research work, but a master’s degree can be sufficient for some client-based practices. Doctoral degree holders in counseling have people-oriented skill sets that qualify them to work with patients and teach and advise students in higher education. 

What does it take to earn a PhD in mental health counseling? After earning a master’s degree, most graduates choose to begin work in a clinical setting or apply for a PhD program. Accredited online doctoral degrees are available in counselor education and supervision and typically require three to four years of coursework and a clinical internship. 

Earning a PhD in counselor education and supervision gives professionals options to continue to see patients in a clinical setting or pivot their skills into teaching and mentoring roles in higher education to prepare the next generation of mental health counselors. 

A commonly asked question is: why pursue a PhD? The two biggest reasons are expanded opportunities and higher salaries. 

For starters, careers in psychology and postsecondary education are growing. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) predicts that between the years 2021 and 2031, job openings for psychologists are projected to grow by 6 percent—which is as fast as the national average, while postsecondary teaching jobs will increase by 12 percent—a rate much faster than the national average for all occupations at 5 percent (BLS 2022). 

Secondly, doctoral degree holders earn higher salaries than those with master’s degrees. The BLS shows the average annual salary for clinical, counseling, and school psychologists is $102,740 (BLS May 2022). The salary percentiles based on employment location, education, and work experience range from $42,760 in the bottom 10th percentile to $168,790 in the top 90th percentile. 

While it’s possible to see clients with a master’s degree, most clinical counselors have a doctoral degree. According to CareerOneStop (2023), a resource from the US Department of Labor, 66 percent of clinical and counseling psychologists have a PhD, putting those with a doctoral degree at a competitive edge with regard to opportunity access and salary negotiations. 

In short, pursuing an online PhD program enables students to expand their knowledge, grow their careers, and increase their earning potential in the future without sacrificing their earning potential in the present. 

Read on to learn more about online PhD programs and career opportunities in mental health counseling.

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Typical Admissions Requirements for Mental Health Counseling PhD Programs

Every educational program has unique admissions requirements, and most online PhD programs in mental health counseling require the following for admission: 

  • A master’s degree from a CACREP-accredited counseling program 
  • Criminal background check 
  • Current counseling license or be eligible to apply for licensure in the state of residence 
  • GPA of 3.0 or higher from a master’s degree program
  • GRE scores 
  • Interview with an admissions committee
  • Official transcripts for undergraduate and graduate coursework
  • One year of full-time post-master’s degree counseling experience
  • Statement of career or research goals
  • Three letters of reference

Courses in Mental Health Counseling PhD Programs

  • Capstone in counseling
  • Clinical supervision
  • Diversity and social justice in counselor education
  • Ethical and legal issues in counselor education and supervision
  • Internship
  • Neuroanatomy & behavioral medicine
  • Online teaching and learning
  • PhD residency
  • Program evaluation & grant writing
  • Quantitative and qualitative research methods
  • Statistics
  • Supervision & consultation

Supervised Clinical Hour Requirements & Internships – Mental Health Counseling

In CACREP-accredited programs, students must complete their skill development preparation to be eligible for a minimum of 700 hours of supervised clinical experience

Clinical hours are divided into two categories: practicum and internship. A minimum of 100 practicum hours are required, with 40 hours spent in direct service with clients. A minimum of 600 internship hours are also required, with a minimum of 240 hours spent in direct service with clients. Direct service hours include time spent with actual clients and activities such as assessment, counseling, psycho-educational activities, and consultation. 

In general, observation and administrative tasks generally do not count toward the direct service supervised clinical hours requirements.

Program Accreditation for Mental Health Counseling – CACREP

As previously mentioned, the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) is the leading accrediting organization for master’s and doctoral counseling degree programs. 

As of 2023, 916 programs hold CACREP accreditation status, earned through a two-part process: a self-assessment and a peer assessment. Programs are evaluated and must demonstrate that their mission, curriculum, and teaching standards meet the high standards of excellence. 

Notably, CACREP is recognized by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA). Nine of the 90 CACREP-accredited PhD programs in counseling are offered online, and six are featured below.

Featured CACREP-Accredited Online PhD & EdD Programs in Mental Health Counseling

Here are six featured CACREP-accredited online PhD programs in counseling. 

Adams State University

The PhD in counselor education and supervision program at Adams State University is designed to prepare counseling professionals for future positions in leadership. Through academic and clinical coursework, graduates are prepared for future clinical, research, or leadership careers in counseling. 

Students in this 66-semester hour, fully-online program begin their program in a cohort and must complete four one-week summer residencies. This curriculum meets Colorado state standards for licensure, but prospective students are urged to research the requirements for counseling licensure in the state they plan to work after graduation. 

  • Location: Alamosa, CO
  • Duration: Four years
  • Accreditation: CACREP
  • Tuition: $357 per credit 

Oregon State University (Hybrid)

Located in the heart of the Willamette Valley, Oregon State University offers a PhD program in counseling that prepares graduates to work as advanced practitioners, clinical supervisors, and counselor educators. This doctoral program emphasizes academic, professional, and research mastery. 

Applicants to this program must have a master’s in counseling or a closely-related discipline to complete their PhD coursework. Taught in a cohort model, this hybrid program requires online coursework and face-to-face classes twice each quarter, which meets on weekends. Graduates from this program go on to work in clinical and academic settings.

  • Location: Corvallis, OR
  • Duration: 3-5 years
  • Accreditation: CACREP
  • Tuition: $590 per credit 

Regent University

Regent University offers a fully-online 66-semester-hour PhD program in counselor education and supervision to teach students to explore, research, and innovate to transform mental health. This Christian program features three instructional residencies and real-world experience to help graduates apply faith-based interventions as educators, scholars, and clinical practitioners. 

Residency requirements are two weeks long and provide in-person networking and mentoring opportunities for students and faculty. 

  • Location: Virginia Beach, VA
  • Duration: Approximately three years
  • Accreditation: CACREP
  • Tuition: $900 per credit

Shippensburg University (Hybrid)  

Offering a part-time 60-credit program, Shippensburg University offers an EdD in counselor education and supervision. This hybrid program features online classes and on-campus courses on Saturdays—a format that allows current clinical practitioners with master’s degrees to maintain part-time or full-time employment while pursuing a doctoral degree. 

Students in this program take courses together in a cohort model for three years, and additional semesters may be required to complete dissertation defense requirements. This program meets the requirements for counseling licensure in Pennsylvania. 

  • Location: Shippensburg, PA
  • Duration: Approximately three years
  • Accreditation: CACREP
  • Tuition: $699 per credit (residents); $1,046 per credit (non-residents)

University of the Cumberlands 

Focused on preparing graduates for research and higher education careers, the University of the Cumberlands offers a 66-credit PhD program in counselor education and supervision. Students in this program can specialize in addiction counseling, advanced counseling, or leadership. 

The curriculum consists of three essential components: leadership, professional research and clinical, and specialty area content courses. Graduates from this program pursue careers as research and counseling psychologists, compliance officers, and post-secondary instructors in higher education. 

  • Location: Williamsburg, KY
  • Duration: Approximately three years
  • Accreditation: CACREP
  • Tuition: $449 per credit

Walden University 

Since 1970, Walden University has offered distance learning opportunities, so it is no surprise that it is one of the eight accredited universities offering an online PhD in counselor education and supervision. This program is designed for CACREP-accredited master’s degree holders in counseling who want to pursue roles in administration, teaching, private practice, or research. 

To help students meet their professional goals, Walden University offers seven areas of specialization: general program, advanced methods, consultation, counseling and social change, forensic mental health counseling, leadership and program evaluation, and trauma and crisis. 

  • Location: Minneapolis, MN
  • Duration: Three to five years
  • Accreditation: CACREP
  • Tuition: $605 per credit

Professors to Know in Mental Health Counseling

Dr. Laura Bruneau 

Adams State University

Dr. Laura Bruneau has a BA in psychology from Miami University, an MEd in community counseling, and a PhD in counselor education and supervision from Kent State University. 

Her specialty areas of interest at Adams State University include creativity in counseling, therapeutic reading, animal-assisted therapy, women’s issues, and counseling children. She has held counseling licenses in Ohio and Colorado and is registered with Pet Partners Team and Registered Reading Education.

Dr. Shay Carper 

University of the Cumberlands

Dr. Shay Carper is an adjunct professor at the University of Cumberlands Department of Counseling. She is a licensed counselor educator and licensed professional counselor. She earned a PhD in counselor education from Sam Houston University in 2019. Dr. Carper holds certification as a Global Career Development Facilitator. 

Dr. Carper’s research focuses include accessing and addressing implicit racial bias in higher education and mental health awareness. Her dissertation, published in 2019, is titled: “The lived experiences of Black master-level graduate students enrolled in predominantly White counseling programs in Texas: A transcendental phenomenological approach.”

Dr. Kok-Mun Ng 

Oregon State University

Specializing in mental health counseling and couples and family counseling, Dr. Kok-Mun Ng is a professor and core faculty member of the College of Education at Oregon State University. He holds a BS in applied geology from the University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, multiple master’s degrees (including an MEd in community counseling from the University of North Texas), and a PhD in counselor education and supervision from Texas A&M University. 

In addition to his credentials, his area of research and teaching emphasis includes training, supervision, and professional identity in the development of counselors, theories, and practices of multicultural and social justice advocacy in counseling, and the internationalization of counseling. 

Jobs for Mental Health Counseling PhDs

As previously mentioned, those with a PhD in counseling can look forward to various career paths in teaching, administration, and clinical counseling. Here are three jobs for graduates of counselor education and supervision programs. 

Become an Assistant/Associate Professor of Counseling Education and Supervision 

Colleges of arts and science and education hire PhD degree-holders to teach courses for their counselor education and supervision programs. Assistant professors are responsible for teaching, research, and professional development. Some tenure-track positions may lead to permanent associate professor positions. Visiting assistant professor positions are also available for those who want to explore teaching options at different universities. 

Depending on job requirements, applicants may need proof of licensure and previous teaching and research experience. The BLS (2022) shows that opportunities for postsecondary teachers nationally are growing 12 percent (2021 to 2031), more than twice as fast as the national average.

Become a Compliance Officer

A career that spans several sectors and disciplines, compliance officers are responsible for examining, evaluating, and investigating eligibility for laws and regulations concerning contracts, licenses, inspections, and permits. Degree holders in counseling education and supervision may be qualified to work in public schools or healthcare facilities to ensure that educational and mental health services are administered fairly and within the prescribed scope of practice at the state and federal levels. 

Depending on the employer, certification may be required for these positions. The BLS (May 2022) shows that most compliance officers work in the federal executive branch of the government and earn an average annual salary of $76,980.

Become a Psychologist

In a career that can include clinical and research components, psychologists work one-on-one with individuals or families in private practice or mental health facilities, or research facilities. Depending on qualifications, a clinical psychologist may provide general behavioral health support or specialized services through educational counseling, couples counseling, addiction issues, grief and loss, or eating disorders. Research psychologists may evaluate patients individually for cognitive assessments for patient or research purposes. 

Psychologists may have state licensing requirements to fulfill before applying for certain jobs. The BLS (2022) shows job openings in psychology are growing as fast as the national average at 6 percent between 2021 and 2031, creating a demand for 11,300 new positions.

Rachel Drummond, MEd

Rachel Drummond, MEd


Rachel Drummond has used her expertise in education and mindfulness to guide aspiring counselors since 2020. Her work emphasizes the importance of integrating reflective mindfulness into counseling techniques, helping readers understand how mental and physical well-being can enhance their professional practice and personal development in counseling.

Rachel is a writer, educator, and coach from Oregon. She has a master’s degree in education (MEd) and has over 15 years of experience teaching English, public speaking, and mindfulness to international audiences in the United States, Japan, and Spain. She writes about the mind-body benefits of contemplative movement practices like yoga on her blog, inviting people to prioritize their unique version of well-being and empowering everyone to live healthier and more balanced lives.